200 YEARS OF PHILANTHROPY IN SINGAPORE

Through our research, we hope to contribute new, previously undocumented knowledge in Singapore’s heritage that shows how philanthropy and voluntary action is a central part of Singapore’s history.

CONVERGING CULTURES: DEVELOPMENTS IN PHILANTHROPY, SINGAPORE 1867-1919

Yu-lin Ooi

This working paper is a part of the Philanthropy in Asia series of exploratory studies by ACSEP, making a first record of the development of philanthropy in Singapore from its founding in 1819 until 2019. This particular work examines how philanthropy grew in the second 50 years after Singapore’s founding, from 1867 to 1919. It follows Working Paper 8: Singapore's Earliest Philanthropists, 1819- 1867, completing an exploration into philanthropy in the first century of Singapore's existence as a British colony.

SINGAPORE’S EARLIEST PHILANTHROPISTS 1819-1867

Yu-lin Ooi

This working paper is a part of the Philanthropy in Asia series of exploratory studies by ACSEP, making a first record of the development of philanthropy in Singapore over the past two centuries starting with 1819. This particular paper presents a record and examination of the contributions of Singapore’s earliest philanthropists from Singapore’s founding in 1819 until it became a Crown Colony in 1867.

GRASSROOTS PHILANTHROPY IN SINGAPORE IN THE NEW MILLENNIUM

Ling Han, Swee-Sum Lam and Joanna Zhi Hui Hioe

This is an exploratory study of contemporary grassroots philanthropy in Singapore. The purpose is to obtain insights into what motivates contemporary grassroots philanthropy and to understand the characteristics of those who have pushed their grassroots work forward through establishing an organisation.

GRASSROOTS GIVING, PHILANTHROPY AND IDENTITY, SINGAPORE 1919-1959

Yu-lin Ooi

This paper is a first study of giving by ordinary people or the grassroots community in Singapore from 1919-1959. As there is a big gap in knowledge about the lives of most people during this period, we set out to find answers to these questions: • Who were some of Singapore’s grassroots givers? • How did they give? Was it in money, or in kind? • What were their motivations for giving?

THE EMERGENCE OF CHINESE WOMEN PHILANTHROPISTS IN SINGAPORE, 1900-1945: THE SISTERHOODS OF THE SOR HEI

Yu-lin Ooi

In the late 19th century, an extraordinary cohort of unmarried women left their native Chinese shores in groups called sisterhoods, to boldly carve out a life for themselves in distant lands. They did this to earn their own money and be mistresses of their own fates.

PHILANTHROPIC FOUNDATIONS IN ASIA: INSIGHTS FROM SINGAPORE, MYANMAR AND CHINA

Pauline Tan and Swee-Sum Lam

This study looks at an emerging trend in which wealthy families, individuals, and corporations in Asia set up foundations to institutionalise their giving. This giving is motivated by a myriad of factors beyond prestige and status, including the desire to give back to society, religion, family and personal values, the desire to drive change, personal experience, and/or affiliations.

OVERVIEW OF CHARITY SECTOR IN SINGAPORE: 2007-2013

Alfred Koh, Swee-Sum Lam and Weina Zhang

This is an exploratory study on the state of the charity sector in Singapore using the Commissioner of Charities Annual Reports from 2007 to 2013, available from the Charity Portal. The depth of analysis is much limited by the availability of inter-sectoral and intra-sectoral data as well as the length of time covered by each annual report.

Yu-lin Ooi

This is a first exploratory study of the contributions of Asian women to the story of philanthropy in Singapore. While many Asian men are known to be philanthropists in Singapore’s history, there is a deafening silence when it comes to the contributions of women.

PHILANTHROPY ON THE ROAD TO NATIONHOOD IN SINGAPORE

Roshini Prakash and Pauline Tan

This paper attempts to address the gap in knowledge on the contributions by philanthropic players to national development in Singapore. Using grounded research, it explores the evolution of giving by individuals, the community and the private sector in Singapore from the end of World War II in 1945 to today. It looks at how each group gives towards prevailing social needs, unexpected events and crises as well as government calls for community support across fve key phases in Singapore’s journey to nationhood. To provide context to the giving, the political and socio-economic situation of each time frame and concurrent government social welfare provisions in each phase are also described.

FRAMING THE ROOTS OF PHILANTHROPY

Swee-Sum Lam, Gabriel Henry Jacob and David Jeremiah Seah

What are the motivations of philanthropic behaviour? Do the same motivations drive both donation (giving of money) and volunteering (giving of time)? Does faith and religion explain philanthropy? Does faith and religion motivate philanthropy beyond the religious sector? These are the questions being answered in this study. The sample used is the 2005 US household data which capture charitable giving and volunteering by sector, religious services attendance, and demographics of households.

TSAO FOUNDATION – A CATALYST FOR CHANGE

Achsah Ang and Swee-Sum Lam

Tsao Foundation, a leader in the eldercare sector, was founded as an operating foundation by the late Mrs Tsao Ng Yu Shun. Under the leadership of Dr Mary Ann Tsao, who is also the granddaughter of the founder, the Foundation aspired to create the environment where older people could age in place, thereby seeing itself as a voice for their needs. The Foundation began by seeing things that people did not see, and creating the services that had not yet existed with the goal to demonstrate a model that could work in the Singapore context. By positioning the Foundation as an advocate of how society should value older people, Dr Tsao was effectively a catalyst for change in the Singapore socio-economic landscape. Celebrating the Foundation's 20th anniversary in 2013, it was an apt time to review its performance and assess if and how it has been delivering the desired social impact - a society for all ages that supports active ageing, values the contributions of older people, and provides for a secure old age.

LIEN FOUNDATION – PHILANTHROPY FOR SOCIAL INNOVATION

Achsah Ang and Swee-Sum Lam

Lien Foundation was the first grant-giving organisation in Singapore to professionalise. This case study briefly traces the growth and development of the Singapore-based foundation and it provides an example of how philanthropy can be an effectual process rather than a causation process. Taking the example of a specific project in the area of eldercare, the case study demonstrates how philanthropy can be conducted innovatively. The approach undertaken by the foundation has benefited the eldercare sector in Singapore beyond pecuniary terms, as traditionally achieved by philanthropists.